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As a child I truly struggled with math. I HATED math, couldn't understand it, was never good at it. Oddly, now that I am a teacher, math is one of my favorite subjects to teach.
I started my teaching career teaching splits. I did a 1/2 split for two years followed by a 2/3 split for two years. The first year I taught I nearly had a breakdown. I was running back and forth between two grades. Teach a mini lesson to one group, get them working on their independent practice, run over the other grade, teach them, get them settled, go back to the other group, help them, run back to the other group. It was back and forth for over an hour. It was exhausting!
When I knew I was going back to a 1/2 split the next year, I had to search for a different, more effective way to teach math. After searching the internet I came across some teachers talking about math groups. At the time there were no professional development books for Guided Math. Today there are some but limited resources available. Check out the bottom of this page for links to available professional development books on the subject.
Even now as I teach a singular grade, I can't go back to teaching math whole group. The benefits of meeting with small groups are numerous. I get to really see if each student is understanding the lesson each day. Students cannot hide amongst the crowd. In a small group I am able to very quickly pick up on who gets it and who doesn't. My groups can be tailored to needs and I can do as basic or as challenging of a review/lesson. The second part of doing math groups is what they are doing when you are teaching small group. Well, they are practicing math using math card games and math games.
Here is description of how my grouping and lessons work...
10-15 min- Whole Class Lesson Introduction (would include Math Message and or review and a brief introduction of the days lesson)
15-20 min - Group Rotations
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4
1-Guided Lesson -Math Game -Math Card -Individual
2-Individual -Guided Group -Math Game -Math Card
3-Math Cards -Individual -Group -Math Game
4-Math Game -Math Card -Individual -Group
Group Lessons- Meet at kidney table. I have a small white board next to the table to show work on, students love to "play teacher" and show the group what they know on the white board during group lessons. I also usually have individual whiteboards for each student for practice. The lesson will include continuation of days lesson and guided practice- usually follow along with Everyday Math Journal Practice Pages
Individual- Students complete Everyday Math Journal- Math Boxes and coordinating Practice Pages, Skill Link pages or individual worksheet practice. They may not leave this station unless all work is completed. They will have to stay at this station, the next rotation until completed.
Math Game- I have a variety of math board games, file folder games, etc. I got a lot through DonorsChoose donations. Somedays I tell students what they must play and other times I give a category, such as any multiplication game or any money game.
Math Cards- At the beginning of the year and throughout the year I teach students addition/sub/mult/div/place value card games. You can play with any standard deck. You can even purchase specific place value/fraction/money playing cards through LakeShore Learning, for a more specific skill game.
In the past I have forgone the beginning mini-lesson and just did straight small groups. Sometimes it depends on the day and the lesson that needs to be taught. Needless to say my math block never is shorter than 75 minutes, most times 90 minutes long.
We have been meeting with reading groups for years. The idea and concept of meeting with math groups is very hard for teachers to undertake. I think we will see an upcoming trend of teaching math groups, but I think it is a very long road ahead.
HOW TO INTRODUCE GUIDED MATH
Let me say this first and foremost... The first several weeks are critical in correctly teaching students the procedures and expectations for guided math. Not following through or cutting corners can lead to frustration and guided math failure. As most teachers know the key to a good system is practice, practice, practice. As with your literacy stations-centers; you wouldn't just sent kids to the station and say, "Have fun!" You teach and practice what is expected of them, for weeks.
Typically I introduce guided math the very first day of school. I gather the kids around and say that they are about to experience math different than what they might have in the past. (as I am the only teacher in my school who has done it, have since converted a couple teachers)
I briefly describe what the guided math block of time will look like.
- You will be in math groups. Groups might change over the course of the school year.
- Each math time you will rotate through 4 stations.
-You will spend about 15-20 minutes at each station.
- You have a different task to accomplish at each station. I then explain each one; card station, game station, independent work station, and lesson with me.
At this point I only introduce one station at a time. I usually start with the card station because they games are easy to teach and easy to model correct behaviors. Here is what a typical introduction would look like.
"Students today we are going to learn our very first station! Today we will be practicing the math card station. Remember this is the station where you get to play card games that help you out with your math skills. I will tell you what card game to play each day. One day a week I will let you have free choice!"
I label the top of a piece chart paper : MATH CARD STATION
I then make a T chart. Labeling one side, Student and the other side Teacher.
"Boys and girls let's take a look at this chart. I thought we could start by brainstorming some good things that you would expect to see from your classmates when they are at the card station."
Students start the list:
1. Take Turns
2. Play Fairly
3. Clean Up All Materials
4. Put Back All Materials Where They Belong
5. Get Started Right Away
6. Work Quietly
7. Play The WHOLE Time
Notice that I tend to use positive statements, not statements that begin with Don't or Never. These are just a few staple statements that I want to include on my chart. Students can usually think of a couple other important good behaviors.
"Now, these are things that you are doing when you are working. Let's take a look at the other side of the chart. Notice that it says, Teacher. Who can raise their hand and answer this question? Your job is to play cards following all these rules. What do you think is my job while you are doing this?"
Students usually can guess this one right away (ok, depending on the grade level :)
"That's right, I am working with students. So boys and girls, let's put on this side; Working with groups or individual students."
"And guess what? That is what my main job is the whole time. If you keep up your job, then I can do my job." (I sometimes go into the whole interruption speech, what happens to the poor kids I have to stop teaching because I have to go tell you to stop your bad behavior.)
"So now we are going to have three students model what they think working at the card station would look like. "
I give a verbal overview to those three students as to what they are going to do first. Go get the cards, go to the designated card playing area, get started right away, play nicely, clean up and return materials when I say stop.
I then have those students give a short (no more than 2 min) overview of what the whole process looks like. The go and pretend they are at that station. I then call, "Ok, card station is over." (or whatever system you use to indicate it is switch time or the end of math).
The students come back to the group. We look at our chart. I go down the list calling out each behavior. Students give me a thumbs up or thumbs down to show if the group demonstrated that behavior.
Next is the fun part. Choose a few students to show the wrong way. Yes, I do show the wrong way, because every year a student demonstrates something the kids might not recognize as the wrong way. I ask this group to go wild, be noisy, toss the cards, don't get started right away, and don't clean up. The kids have a blast (obviously :) Showing this one. I then again signal for them to come back, and we go over the chart, but this time we all give thumbs down.
Now most importantly, you need to follow up with another group showing the correct way again. "Boys and girls, I need three more volunteers who can show the last group how the real card station should be done. Who thinks they can do it?"
At the end of all this I then introduce their first math card game. Something simple, very easy to play and to teach. I then give students a chance to work with a partner or two and show me how they all can practice the good behaviors on our chart.
This sequence goes on for several days. So the next day, this is what it looks like in short review...
-Gather kids, ask them if they remember what some good things are that we should see when we are at the math card station.
-Review chart and get any that they may have overlooked
-Have group model, good, bad and then good again.
-Show new card game
-Have students practice
Yes, this does take a good chunk of time and will each math time until you are ready to begin stations. I follow this same format when I introduce all four stations. At the end all four stations will have its own chart that can be shown somewhere in the room for student reference.
Now when you are ready go begin introducing the math game station. I usually do a quick review of expected behaviors at the card station and then introduce the game station.
The next day same thing.
A few days in, I will split the time between practicing card and then game. Really you set the time on this one, how long you want them to play and practice the games (10 mins max to begin with I would say, build your time stamina).
I know some of you are thinking where does fitting in the actual math manual lessons work when introducing stations. I teach the lesson first, then do the practice of the stations.
This is just a guideline on how to get it started. A lot of you have your own ways and tips and tricks you have learned throughout the years. Use it! Do what works for you, but remember like I said at the top, guided math will not be successful unless you take the time to teach behavior and model them over and over again.
Professional Development Books on Guided Math. Click on the books to see further information.
Some of my favorite math card games to teach the kids...
Turn Over Ten - Card Game to reinforce sums of 10
To see a list of my favorite resource books for math games, click here...
Guided Math Game Resource Books
For ideas on what math games you can create or purchase:
Guided Math Games
Guided Math Q and A:
Over the last couple days I have had some great questions that follow PTers have been asking me. I decided to list some of them here. I hope this answers some questions you may have as well!
Q: Is 15-20 minutes enough to teach a lesson?
A: Actually 15- 20 mins is enough time to teach most lessons. I have done this format with grades 1st-4th and have found it sufficient. You know how they say that kids have a natural attention span of like 10 minutes, the 15-20 minute range helps to keep the lesson focused and on track.
Q: How do you determine groups?
A: This year I plan on doing pre-tests for each EDM unit. I have not done it in the past. My district has MAP testing. I have been using the data from MAP testing to help separate the kids into ability groups.
Q: In what order is your groups high-low? low-high?
A: For most part the kids in my first group are the low kids. I buffer and extra five minutes into that group time, so I can make sure to go over more and get in some number sense activities. The groups get more advanced from there, being that my fourth group can almost literally teach themselves sometimes. In my structure, the fourth group goes to the independent work station first, so they are actually doing the workbook/journal pages before they meet with me. The fourth group has to be capable of handling that, and for the most part they are.
Q: What do the kids do when they are finished at the independent station (math journal/workbook)?
A: There are a couple options for kids that finish yearly on workbook pages, which always happens. I would rather have them have less workbook pages and get them finished, than come to group with their work not finished for review. When they are done, they study their math facts using flashcards or I have created individual games that they can go and bring back to their seats. I got this book, Math Brain Teasers, I think from Teacher Created Resources series. I copied the brain teasers, attached to cardstock and laminated for multiple use.
Q: How about fitting in daily timed math tests?
A: As for timed tests, which I do to... I have done it two ways, at the very beginning of the math block, as a whole group or first thing at the beginning (or sometimes) end of each math group. Two years ago I switched over from the traditional one minute timed math tests to the ones you can find at www.wholebrainteaching.org I use the speed math ones. I can't fit this one in everyday but use it as a treat a couple days a week, yes the kids actually find it as a treat. HA